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Research and Publication Ethics > For Authors and Reviewers > Research and Publication Ethics

For policies on research and publication ethics not stated in these instructions, "Guidelines on Good Publication Practice" (http://www.publicationethics.org/resources/guidelines) or "Good Publication Practice Guidelines for Medical Journals" (http://kamje.or.kr/publishing_ethics.html) can be applied. In studies of human subjects, the procedures should be in accordance with the ethical standards of the Institutional Review Board (IRB) of the author's institute and with the Helsinki Declaration in 1975 (revised in 2000).
Copies of written informed consent and Institutional Review Board (IRB) approval for clinical research should be kept and insert a sentence in the "Materials and Methods" section stating that the study was approved or exempt from approval, and include the name of the IRB. In the case of animal experiments, authors should follow the institutional or national guidelines for the care and use of laboratory animals and insert the animal approved project number in the "Materials and Methods" section.


Authorship credit should be based on (1) substantial contributions to conception and design, acquisition of data, and/or analysis and interpretation of data; (2) drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content; (3) final approval of the version to be published; and (4) agreement to be accountable for all aspects of the work in ensuring that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately investigated and resolved. Every author should meet all of these four conditions. After the initial submission of a manuscript, any changes whatsoever in authorship (adding author(s), deleting author(s), or re-arranging the order of authors) must be explained by a letter to the editor from the authors concerned.
This letter must be signed by all authors of the paper. Copyright assignment must also be completed by every author.

Duplicate or previous publication or submission

Manuscripts are considered with the understanding that they have not been published previously in print or electronic format and are not under consideration by another publication or electronic medium. Copies of related or possibly duplicative materials (i.e., those containing substantially similar content or using the same or similar data) that have been previously published or are under consideration elsewhere must be provided at the time of manuscript submission.

Conflicts of interest and financial disclosures

A conflict of interest may exist when an author has financial or personal relationships or affiliations that could influence the author's decisions, work, or manuscript. Authors are expected to provide detailed information about all relevant financial interests and relationships or financial conflicts (e.g., employment/affiliation, grants or funding, consultancies, stock ownership or options, royalties, or patents filed, received, or pending), particularly those present at the time the research was conducted and through publication, as well as other financial interests (such as patent applications in preparation) that represent potential future financial gain. All disclosures of any potential conflicts of interest, including specific financial interests and relationships and affiliations (other than those affiliations listed on the title page of the manuscript) relevant to the subject of their manuscript, will be disclosed by the corresponding author on behalf of each coauthor, if any, as part of the submission process. Likewise, authors without conflicts of interest will be requested to state so as part of the submission process. Failure to include this information in the manuscript will prohibit commencement of the review process of the manuscript.

Resolving Ethical Issues (Suspected Misconduct)

In case of a suspected ethical problem, the editorial board will follow COPE flowcharts (http://publicationethics.org/resources/flowcharts).

Editorial Office
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